LCT retrospective

Prague Castle

Last month I attended the annual meeting of my study program. This year, the meeting was held at Charles University in the beautiful capitol city of the Czech Republic, Prague. Since I have already graduated, this was probably the last LCT meeting that I will attend (although who knows!). As usual, it was an absolute blast.

As the graduating class, we participated in a small, but very formal, graduation ceremony. I already have the two diplomas from the two universities, so this ceremony was just something extra. We did receive a supplementary LCT document with a pretty nice description of the program and its requirements. I imagine this is something I could submit to anyone asking for more details about LCT, but I doubt that I will need to submit it anywhere ever, since it’s not an official diploma or transcript of records. Nevertheless, I enjoyed the ceremony, because the format was close to that of American graduation ceremonies– that is, it was very formal. There were speeches by professors and a student, there was organ music and singing, and it was held in a beautiful old hall in the Charles University in Prague. 

Insignia of the Charles University in Prague.

It was liberating being one of the graduating class. For one, I didn’t have to worry too much about making it to any particular talk or event, so I was able to sleep in! But also, I found that I did get a new perspective on the LCT program by coming for the third year.  Having graduated a while ago means that my life has moved away from all of the discussions on lectures, studying, advisers, etc. Hearing all of that talk again, reminded me how urgent it all felt at the time. Looking back made me realize how much and how quickly my life had changed– for better or worse. Either way, despite being a graduate, I still felt welcome. I met other graduates there, who were moving through similar experiences as I was now. So even though I am not in the university mindset anymore, I can still feel like I am part of this larger community.

The LCT students are incredible– not just the ones from my year or my universities–but from all the years and universities. Just about each person in the program is driven, open, and interesting in their own way. As ever, there are people who like to work, there are people who prefer to party, there are some who work hard/play hard, and there are some who chill. Nearly no one comes from the same country or the same background, which is probably the best part. As an alum at the meeting, I felt like I got to look back at the program and see it with many eyes and many points of view.

Now that I am in the workforce, I can see that having had the time to explore and meet new people was the biggest advantage I gained from LCT. I feel I learned how to be part of a community and how to go out there and find answers and guidance for myself when I needed it. Now, I have a stable career that I feel will propel me forward, but I don’t have as much time to explore new things. Still, I have to keep learning, which means I have to do the learning on my own time.

I have to keep learning… a LOT. Because what I learned in the LCT program wasn’t enough preparation for the professional world. I now have to introduce myself to a whole host of frameworks, design paradigms, algorithms, technologies, work methodologies, and attitudes that I have never had to face before. During my coursework, I spent little time on hands-on practice with modern tools. Not only that, but since I am further missing the computer science background and the web development experience that many programmers have these days, I have to learn all of those things afresh as well, in order to compete with/work alongside these people in the workforce.

To give some concrete examples, in just the last couple weeks I was struggling with CUDA drivers installation (for the billionth time), Docker, REST APIs, python’s Flask web framework, the OpenNMT-tf framework for machine translation (I already struggled with Marian, Sockeye, and OpenNMT-lua a while back), making a presentation on some recent research (i.e. reading papers and dissecting math) on a specific topic in machine translation, and a bunch of code refactoring. That’s just in the last couple weeks.

Prague Astronomical Clock

It sounds exciting, but actually, it’s very stressful to have to learn everything at once. I wish we had had some more practical courses in my master’s that would have taught us some of these theoretical ideas by using real tools (e.g. scipy, tensorflow, matplotlib), provided assignments in standardized formats (e.g. APIs to query or Docker containers to run) just so that we could get a little bit more used to those tools, if not completely comfortable with them.

I suppose one could ask how is it that professors could possibly keep up with all of the tools coming out all the time, to be able to teach us that? I would respond: how are we managing it then with much less experience? Because we, the students, do eventually manage it all on our own somehow– you just do what you gotta do– but it’s lack of guidance from our mentors in this area that easily leads to unnecessary stress and a steep learning curve. Another response might be “you have to learn how teach yourself.” Of course that is true, but learning how to teach yourself and having guidance in your studies are not mutually exclusive. At my unis, it wasn’t just like this with practical topics. It was like this with many things, much of the time. I won’t say “all the time” because there were a few gem classes/professors, but much of the time, the students got together and taught each other things they had learned 5 minutes ago. This is why the LCT program was so invaluable– it was full of students ready, willing, and able to do this, and to make a party out of it.

In the end, doing the LCT program was the right decision for me, because even though I feel the education was probably of lower quality than what you’d get at a top (in my field) US public university, I gained many soft skills and many many worthwhile experiences. If I could go back, I would definitely do it again, but only after studying a bit more on my own in the prerequisites/background topics first. In short, I would teach myself 75% of what I need to know on my own in terms of skills and theory, and then come to LCT for the last little bit on research. Things would be calmer then, and I think I could get even more out of the LCT program this way. I wonder, is it like this with all the Erasmus Mundus programs or all unis in Europe? Professors themselves seem to bounce around a lot, so is it just luck based on what professors are there the year you happen to go?

The LCT meeting was a great opportunity to look back and process everything that has happened in the last 2+ years. But now that I’ve spent some time looking back, it’s time to start looking forward. As usual, I don’t know what comes next. I have a lot of vague ideas and few concrete plans. Visiting Prague was really nice, because it reminded me that even though I don’t like big cities that much, there might be bigger cities out there that could still fit me– unlike Berlin, which is really a mismatch for my preferences, I think. In the long term, I know Berlin is not the right place for me. In some ways, it might make sense to move back home to the US. I think the salaries are still quite a bit higher there for programmers, and it would be nice to be closer to family. Eventually, I definitely want to do that… but I’m not quite ready to stop traipsing across the world just yet!

View from Prague Castle
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The NLP Job Hunt

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Castelvecchio in Verona

Around a week after graduation, I sent off a very small handful of applications to a few different companies in computational linguistics. I didn’t spend much time thinking about the whole thing, because shortly thereafter, I left to attend EMNLP (a big comp ling conference that was held in Brussels). After that I headed to Paris to meet some friends, then returned to Trentino to hike a bit more in the Brenta Dolomites, and then went to Berlin. Below I’ll describe my experience and advice I’ve gotten for applying to both smaller companies, and big companies, interspersed with images of my recent travels for fun.

Searching for jobs

First of all, it was pretty easy to find jobs that looked appealing or related to my studies in smaller companies. One nice source was nlppeople, who had the most relevant openings. Other sources like linguistlist and corporalist also seem useful, and then there are the typical postings on LinkedIn or Indeed that seem to target typical software engineers a little more. Another couple of places I found later on, but didn’t explore were remoteok.io and remoteml, so I wonder if those are actually useful (anyone have any experience with them?).

On the other hand, finding jobs for the big companies like Amazon, Google, Facebook, Microsoft, Apple, etc. entails going onto those guys’ websites and doing a search. The correct job opening tends to be called something like “Applied Scientist” or “Research Scientist” and has some description of the field you’d be working in or the project you’d be working on. It’s not always clear what exactly you’d be doing, and it’s easier to get an interview there if you have an acquaintance that can push your resume through to the right recruiters.

In any case, finding interesting jobs and actually getting an interesting job are different beasts.

Small company interviews

Interviews for normal companies (and start-ups) seem to consist of the following stages:

  1. introductory phone screen conversation
  2. technical interview
  3. coding project
  4. follow-up interview and/or final interview

My (limited) experience with these has been pretty positive. The introductory phone screen has typically talked about the company’s work and business model, and has asked about your own background and cultural fit. The technical interview asks machine learning and computer science questions, with a skew towards the position you’d be working in. The coding project has typically focused on a task relevant to what the company is working on. The follow-up interview might ask a few more questions about your knowledge, to see how you are stacked up against other candidates. The final interview will already talk about logistics such as salary, start times, moving, and so on.

This interview process is not easy, but it also does seem very reasonable. The questions I saw were typically to the point, and not outside the bounds of what I should be expected to know about after completing my degree, and planning to move into industry. In terms of time frames, the small companies were pretty quick on getting back to me, usually taking only one or two weeks after receiving my resume to respond, and just a few days in between each step thereafter.

It’s possible I got lucky with the small companies I interviewed for, because I heard that other people had strange interviews, where the small companies were trying to replicate the interview process of the big companies, which I believe would be a mistake.

Big company interviews

Interviews for big companies (Amazon, Google, etc.) are very different. The best way to describe it is as a massive comp sci entrance exam. Everyone takes these entrance exams, and typically, after passing, you get further interviews with the specific group you would be working with. The process seems to consist of the following stages (though I admit that I myself did not complete the whole process, so I’m not sure about the end):

  1. phone screen with behavioural, basic comp sci, and basic machine learning questions
  2. phone technical interview
  3. on site all day technical interviews with whiteboard coding (and sometimes presentation of own work)
  4. follow-up interviews with teams of choice
  5. final interviews with logistics

I won’t sugar coat this. If you are taking the big company entrance exams, you need to have a computer science degree and remember a good chunk of what you learned, or you need to (re-)teach yourself computer science fundamentals. This is really shitty for us who are coming from a theoretical linguistics background and the LCT program, which does not cover these fundamentals (although I think they really should offer them to those who don’t have them). Below I’ve assembled all the advice I’ve received from various sources on what to study before making applications to the big companies. Some companies may ask for less of the computer science stuff, and more stuff related to your degree, but it’s better to over-prepare than under-prepare.

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Hiking trail in the Brenta Dolomites

Behavioural questions

First of all, some of the companies ask you behavioural questions, like “Have you ever had a conflict with a coworker?” or “Have you ever failed to meet a deadline?” or “What are your weaknesses?” For me, I kind of handle these questions on the spot. I feel that the best way to deal with them is to say “Hmm, let me think about that…” and then start thinking about working conditions at your previous job/internship/whatever. Usually, something relevant pops to mind.

Some people might find it easier to research the most common behavioural questions, and take time to think of a scenario for the most common ones. There is also a formula that can be followed which leads to a succinct answer to these types of questions, called STAR. These methods might be the more principled way to attack behavioural questions.

In any case, I feel like these questions are sort of bullshit, and I find it easier to bullshit my way through them, because that also leads to a more natural way of talking about the problem for me. I also have a lot of prior work experience, so it’s not that hard for me to conjure up some scenarios. I don’t think I’ve ever flat out failed this section, but I’ve also never applied for leadership positions where this section is probably a lot more heavily weighted.

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Brussels Town Hall

Topics to cover

For the computer science entrance exams at the big companies, you can use leetcode.com, topcoder.com and projecteuler.net to practice, and read the well-known book Cracking the Coding Interview as well (behaviour quesitons are in there too). In short, you will need to know:

  • algorithm complexity (big-O notation for runtime and memory)
  • sorting: n*log(n) complexity algorithms such as quicksort and merge sort
  • hashtables: how they work and how to implement one in code using only arrays
  • trees: how to construct and manipulate binary trees, n-ary trees, tries, red/black trees (and/or splay trees, and AVL trees); how to traverse trees using breadth-first search and depth-first search; the difference between inorder, postorder, and preorder
  • graphs: objects, pointers, matrix, and adjacency list representations of graphs; how to traverse them using breadth-first search and depth-first search; their complexity, tradeoffs, and implementation in code
  • other algorithms: Dijkstra and A*
  • NP-complete: what this means, and problems such as the traveling salesman, and the knapsack problem
  • combinatorics: n-choose-k
  • probability: bayes, likelihood, prior, posterior
  • statistics: significance testing, distributions such as Gaussian and Poisson
  • concurrency: processes, scheduling, locks, mutexes, semaphores, monitors, avoiding deadlock and livelock and how to avoid them, parallelization on multi-core systems
  • object oriented system design: features sets, interfaces, class hierarchies, constraints, simplicity and robustness, tradeoffs
  • development practices: validating designs, testing whiteboard code, preventing bugs, code maintainability and readability, refactor/review sample code

In addition to computer science, you will need to know machine learning. If you only took one course on it during your LCT program, you will probably need to study some things that you missed, including:

  • supervised/unsupervised/semi-supervised learning
  • generative vs. discriminative models
  • clustering
  • classification
  • regression
  • overfitting/underfitting
  • cross-validation
  • regularization
  • bias-variance tradeoff
  • ROC curves
  • train vs. dev vs. test data
  • ML algorithms: naive bayes, linear regression, logistic regression, decision trees, random forests, KNN, K-means, SVM, HMMs, Viterbi, GMMs
  • neural networks and their specific issues: feedforward DNNs, RNNs, LSTMs, vanishing/exploding gradient problem, attention, stochastic gradient descent, learning rate, mini-batches, etc.

You will want to be familiar with the issues in computational linguistics and your specific field, which will depend on what the company is doing and the job you are applying to. This part you might not have to study as much for, since it will depend on your interests and will probably be related to your studies. In any case, it could include topics such as:

  • language modeling, including smoothing
  • FSTs and regular expressions
  • word embeddings (and sentence embeddings)
  • common traditional and state-of-the-art algorithms in your chosen sub-field (e.g. for machine translation you should know SMT models and also Transformer NNs, for speech recognition you should know about HMM-GMMs and also TDNNs)
  • handling big data and data cleanup (e.g. text normalization for language data, detecting misaligned data for MT, disambiguating speech from noise in speech data)
  • other issues specific to language processing (e.g. different scripts, word orders, phonologies, etc.)

Finally, you will want to know some modern technologies for working with machine learning, neural networks, computational linguistics, and software engineering in general, such as, for example:

  • common sources of language data
  • common data formats (e.g. XML, SQL databases, etc.)
  • Python and packages like numpy, scipy, matplotlib, spacy, nltk
  • MATLAB
  • c and/or java could also be helpful if you know them
  • TensorFlow, Torch, Keras, deeplearning4j or similar for NNs
  • Kaldi for speech recognition
  • Git for version control
  • cloud computing
  • Docker
  • Linux and bash

There might be more topics that I missed, but that’s the gist of it I think. It seems like a lot, because… well, it is. It basically covers an undergraduate degree in computer science, a graduate degree in machine learning, and one or two courses in computational linguistics. You likely won’t need to know all of it for whatever job you’re applying to, but it’s not unrealistic to have questions asked from any of these topics. You may not know an answer to every question, and that might also be ok, but it’s good if you know the larger majority.

My feeling is that if you come from that comp sci background and studied comp ling, you will just have a little bit to brush up on, while if you came from theoretical linguistics and studied comp ling (at least in LCT), you will need to spend an extra semester (or more depending on how quickly you learn) to properly learn what you need to know.

At the big companies, I was told that I should apply in the topic I had the most experience in (speech recognition for me) rather than applying to other topics I might be interested in, because this is where I had the best chance of getting actually hired.

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The Eiffel Tower in autumn

Final thoughts

For me, I admit that I certainly don’t know all of the things I’ve listed above. First of all, since I don’t have a comp sci background, I never studied any of the comp sci topics in a structured way. Second, I feel that the LCT program did not have a curriculum that progressed in a logical order over the course of the entire two years, which would have supported me in learning what I needed to know. In essence, I had to restart my progress at my second uni, because my second uni didn’t really have a curriculum that allowed me to keep learning on the same track I was already on. In addition, many of the topics that I did cover during my studies were taught in a disorganized way, and/or a superficial manner, and/or in-depth but very quickly. Therefore, those items that I did cover of the topics above, I covered in a way that didn’t really solidify my understanding of them.

Having graduated, I no longer see an easy path and time-investment opportunities towards learning them. Yes, there are MOOCs, but my personal learning style really benefits from in-class instruction. I will probably have to keep studying in evening courses if I want to properly learn some of those computer science topics I’m missing. Otherwise, I have to hope that the next job I have provides me opportunities to fill in at least some of the gaps.

In any case, I am going to be very busy soon– I have accepted an offer at a start-up in Berlin.

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Hallo Berlin!

Year 2 Retrospective

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Rovereto, outside my window.

So here I am, at the end of the LCT program. Things are nearly wrapped up, but not quite over yet. My stay permit in Italy runs out December 31st, and before then, I hope to figure out what comes next! In the meanwhile, a lot happened this year, so like last year, I’d like to provide a summary of my experiences. I feel like the LCT experience is really unique for each person, especially during the second year, so take this all with a huge grain of salt, as being very much my subjective opinion.

Contents

  1. Bureaucracy
  2. Accommodation & Costs
  3. Getting Around
  4. Food
  5. Weather/Activities
  6. The University System
  7. CIMeC
  8. Internships
  9. Final thoughts (TL;DR)

Bureaucracy

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Colosseum in Rome.

Oh boy. Where do I start? Italian bureaucracy is famed for being bad, and rightfully so. I’m sure it’s not the worst, but it’s not the best. You will go to many offices, many times, and many people will tell you many things. They will tell you those things in Italian. Many times you will either fail to understand those things, or those things will be contradictory, so you won’t know which one to believe. Deadlines are important, when they pertain to you. They are unimportant when they pertain to others.

Although much in the bureaucracy is annoying to deal with, two big points jump out: the stay permit, and thesis submission at the uni.

The process of getting the stay permit was very tiresome. All in all, if you are in Rovereto and you get it expedited, you should still expect it to take 4-5 months, assuming everything goes smoothly (in Trento, I heard it could take longer). For significant others… well, my husband still doesn’t have his, 14 months later. This means he was unable to travel around the Shengen Zone (since his 3 month US citizen visa waiver ran out early on). As long as he stayed in Italy and/or traveled through ports of Italy, it was fine, but the whole thing was just a bummer.

In terms of thesis submission, there are a series of deadlines that you will need to meet, and a number of small document submissions that will need to be made along the way. No one will let you know about these deadlines or the requirements, but they may be posted on the CIMeC website (or they may not, if it’s not updated for whatever reason). It’s something you just need to watch for on your own.

My suggestion would be to ask around from the other students at the start of the semester about any deadlines, to check the websites, and then to email the coordinators to confirm with them that you understood everything. There were many times that I thought I had read about all the deadlines correctly, but after an email, I realized that I had missed something. Expect to get some flack for this, like “you should know your own deadlines,” but do it anyway. It’s worth it to take the flack, rather than deal with the issues after the fact.

Accommodation & Costs

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The view from my window in summer.

The cost of living in Trentino is a little higher than in Saarland (which was extremely cheap), but the quality of life is much much higher. The 1000 euro a month stipend from Erasmus Mundus is still quite alright in terms of living a student life, but it’d be nice to have a bit extra for travel, especially. With that said, paid jobs are much harder to find than in Saarland. It seems to be expected that you won’t get pay for an internship, which I feel is a bit silly, since by now, you can probably consider yourself a programmer. As such, I would say start looking for paid internships in companies (nearby or abroad) right away. I lucked into one at FBK, but they don’t seem that common there either.

In terms of rent, the uni has some housing, but they do this thing, where they put two people in one bedroom (“doppia”), like in the days of undergraduate dorms in the US. Normal (“singola”) rooms in shared apartments are not too difficult to find though. Expect to pay a little over 300 euro per month, plus the extra costs of heating and such.

If you are looking for a proper apartment (like I was, since I had a significant other and a cat with me), the most efficient way is to walk around town (either in Rovereto or Trento) and go to an “agenzia immobiliare.” You will have to pay around 1 months rent as a fee to the agency for hooking you up with an apartment (you won’t get this back, it’s just a horrible fee). Then, expect to put down at least 2 months rent at the start for the apartment. You can probably find an apartment without an agency as well, but since I was under a time pressure, this was what I found to be the quickest method.

Getting Around

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The view from the bus on the way to Povo.

Getting out of Rovereto, in particular, is just super annoying. The last train to Trento in the morning is at 9:37am, and there’s nothing until 11:50. The last train from Trento back to Rovereto is at around 21:30 or sometimes 22:30. This means that if you want to go watch a movie, have a nice dinner, or just hang out with friends in Trento, it’s basically not going to happen if you live in Rovereto. On the other hand, the last train from Rovereto to Trento is at around 11:30, which is a bit better, but still not great.

The computer science courses and the FBK research institute (where a lot of internships for computational linguistics take place) is located in yet another town called Povo, which is an additional 20 minute bus ride from Trento. By the way, the language courses also take place at the campus in Trento, a short walk from the train station. Therefore, unless you are interested in more of the cognitive neuroscience courses/internships from CIMeC in particular, I would probably recommend you to live in Trento. You can always travel to Rovereto if there’s really a course you would be interested in, since it’s just a 15 minute train ride, but traveling in the other direction is much harder. To me, Trento seems more fun and vibrant of a city, and it’s a little bigger as well.

Finally, as a student, you can apply for the Libera Circolazione travel pass, which is only 50 euro for the whole year, and absolutely wonderful. With Libera Cirolazione, you can take busses and trains not just to Trento/Povo, but all around Trentino. In the summer, the lakes (e.g. Lago di Garda, Lago di Lamar, Lago di Caldonazzo) are great to visit, and you can take the cable car to the top of the mountain in Trento as well.

Until you get the travel pass (or for visiting friends), you can use the app called OpenMove to buy bus and train tickets in Trentino. I find this to be the easiest way, and the cheapest way as well, since you can oftentimes combine bus/train tickets into a single “trip” on the app for cheaper. Barring this, bus tickets can be bought at Tabacchi shops, and train tickets from the machines or counter at the train station. Bus tickets can’t always be bought in the bus, so it’s much better to get them ahead of time. You can ask the Tabacchi for “bus urbano” within the city, or “bus extraurbano” for outside the city.

By the way, you can assume that the trains will be at least 5 minutes late. They don’t even announce it at the station if that’s the case. Once they start announcing that the train is 5 minutes late, that actually means the train is already 10 minutes late. For this reason, it’s nice to be able to keep track of train times, platforms, and how late they are. For that I think the TrainTimetable app is pretty good.

In terms of traveling farther away, you will probably need to fly out of Milan or Venice, meaning you may need to stay there the night before, if your flight is early in the morning, since there aren’t a lot of trains going there very early. Otherwise, there may be flights out of  Verona, but I don’t think that airport connects with as many international airports.

Long story short, travel is going to be a pain.

Food

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Korallo pizza.

If you don’t like pizza or pasta you will be in trouble. These are the staples. But after being here for a year, you will probably come to like pizza and pasta, because it’s very good. Cheese and cured meat (coming from all over Italy) are also fantastic. White bread, on the other hand, is mostly useless, unless you can find some of the tasty Germanic bread more particular to the north. This region is influenced a lot by Germanic culture as well. Some regional foods include spätzle, canederli, and speck. Good places in Rovereto include Bar Christian (Germanic, good, and cheap), Pizza al Volo (good and cheap), Osteria di Pettirosso (fancy), Al Silenzio (hip), Drago d’Oro (Chinese, and cheap), and actually, the student mensa is quite good, though it isn’t as cheap as one would like. I didn’t get to go out very often in Trento, but one of the best pizza places is on the way to Povo. It’s called Korallo, and it is an absolute must (it won a prize for 33rd out of 500 in all of Italy for pizza).

Trentino is also an amazing wine region. I don’t actually know a lot about wines, but I never had a bad wine the entire time I’ve been here. I particularly enjoyed Marzemino, Lagrein, and Muller Thurgau. You will definitely notice this, because there are vinyards growing on every single spot of available land (except where there are apple trees, which is another thing the region is known for). You will ride the train past vinyards, you can ride your bike alongside them, and you can walk right through the middle of them too. It’s quite lovely.

Finally, before I came here, I thought I disliked coffee. I was wrong. The coffee in Italy is not like the coffee in other places, and you should give it a chance, at least once or twice, even if you have sworn off of coffee in the past. The coffee bar is a huge part of Italian culture. Italians might go for a coffee as many as 5 times a day (although I think 2-3 might be more common), but they don’t linger there. They typically order their coffee at the bar, and then just stand at the bar and inhale it on the spot, before getting back to work.

Gelato is the other thing that’s worth trying, even if you aren’t a big fan of ice cream, just to give it a chance. It’s really good, because in many shops it is actually handmade from local cow milk and fresh fruit, which is also why each shop has its own flavours.

In terms of meals, they will be typically split into strict categories and go in this very specific order:

  1. Antipasto (appetizers) — optional
  2. Primo (first dish: pasta or rice)
  3. Secondo (second dish: meat, fish, etc.)* + Contorno (sides: potatoes, veggies, etc.)
  4. Dolce (sweets) — optional
  5. Caffe (coffee) and/or Aperitivo (sweet wine)

*Pizza is considered secondo, but it usually replaces primo+secondo.

Personally, when I have the option, such as at the mensa (cafeteria), I prefer to eat my meal all at once, taking a bit from each dish. Whenever I did this, Italians that I would be sitting next to, would comment saying, “Italians would think it weird that you don’t eat your primo first.”

When you enter a restaurant, you may have to wait to be seated, but often, when you enter a cafe or bar (which can be an alcoholic bar or a coffee bar), you just go pick a table yourself. To pay for food you usually (but not always) do it at the counter after your meal, and you don’t give any tip.

Weather/Activities

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Rotwand via ferrata.

The weather in Trentino is fairly moderate. It doesn’t get too hot or too cold. In the summer, it will be around 30 degrees Celsius most of the time, and in the winter, it will hover above freezing. It might snow once or twice, which is always fun, but it probably won’t stick for long.

I really got into aerial silks (a type of acrobatics). There are a few different places that do it. A.S.D. Punto Fitness in Rovereto is just wonderful, although it’s a little bit hard to reach without a bike since it’s about 3.5km from the city center. La Bolla di Sapone in Trento is also a nice one. I think there might be one or two other groups but I haven’t tried them.

This area has so much to do if you enjoy the outdoors. You can hike all year round, but when the snows come to the mountaintops, it might not be the best idea unless you are very hard core. It seemed like the best hiking season was something like April through late October or mid-November. Before April it’s still a bit cold in my opinion, and after November the snows come. July and August are also way too hot to hike in certain places, but if you go to high elevation then it’s noticeably cooler up there.

If you are into mountain climbing, bouldering, and via ferrata, you will be very happy here, since it’s one of the best places for this as well.

In the winter, you can go skiing/snowboarding at a few different places nearby. There should be public transport that takes you to the well known spots, with areas for beginners and experts. I didn’t get the chance to go, so I can’t recommend any particular places, but I know that it’s a well-known area for this as well.

In the summer, there are many different lakes to go swimming at, which is one of my favorite things to do. Lago di Lamar (my favorite), Lago di Caldonazzo, and of course, the famous Lago di Garda are all just an hour away by bus and very easy to make connections to.

If you are into castles, there’s a ton of them all over the place around here. My favorite one was Castel Beseno, which is very medieval and well preserved on top of a beautiful hill looking out over the entire Adige valley. It’s just a short bus ride (and 45 minute walk up a hill) away from Rovereto and Trento. The castle in Arco was another favorite of mine, since you walk up to it through a lovely olive grove, and it is also very well preserved. There are many more as well… if you shoot an arrow you will hit a castle here! If you are into churches, there are even more of those. A new church is hiding around every corner, and each little village has it’s own little steeple poking up above the rooftops.

If you are more into city travel, it’s not too difficult to make connections to all the well known tourist cities like Venice, Florence, Verona, Bologna, Bolzano, Rome (which is a 4 hour high-speed train ride away), Innsbruck, and even Munich. For the most part, it makes more sense to plan these as overnight weekend trips, since they are far enough away that a day trip would make it a bit stressful. Genova and the beautiful Cinque Terre are also close enough, that you can plan a long weekend around them. Unfortunately, travel to more distant areas takes a bit more planning, due to the difficulty of flying.

The University System

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Cathedral in Trento.

The university system at Trento (maybe in Italy as a whole?) seems to be about giving you some 4 hours of lecture per week, and then telling you to pass an exam. There are few exercises, if any, few opportunities to meet with professors, unless you really go out of your way, few required textbooks, and few mock exams. In short, you just learn on your own.

Like in Germany, you don’t have to sign up for finals until closer to the end of the semester, and if you fail the final, you get one or two more chances to retake it. If you never pass, you can somehow “reject” your grade, and pretend the whole thing never happened. That part is kind of nice I guess.

The grading system is between 18 and 30L. The top grade is 30, but the L means “honours.” I think lower than a 25 is already getting to be not that great, and many people start rejecting their grade at that point (depending on their level of perfectionism).

Overall, personally, I hate this system. I prefer exercises to gauge my progress along the way, accessible professors who don’t force me to make multiple emails to arrange meetings that they end up missing due to their other obligations, and mid-term exams along the way to practice, if possible.  So the learning style didn’t mesh with my learning style, but since I only needed to take 2 courses after my first year at Saarland to meet the requirements to graduate, it wasn’t that big a deal.

CIMeC

CIMeC is a cognitive neuroscience department. The “Language and Multimodal Interaction (LMI)” track that is available within CIMeC is the one that LCT technically falls under, but there are way fewer students and professors teaching this bit of it. LMI is on the periphery of CIMeC and LCT is even more on the periphery. All in all, for computational linguistics it certainly doesn’t come near the quality of education that you get in Saarland. (If you recall, my opinion of the teaching methods at Saarland was already mediocre, and CIMeC is definitely worse.) On the other hand, if you are into cog neuro, CIMeC seems to be very good.

For those who are less interested in cog neuro, and are rather specializing more in computational linguistics, I would recommend enrolling in the computer science courses in Povo. I have a background in linguistics, and I found some of those lectures to be very useful to fill in some of the holes I had (although you will still have to teach yourself a lot, including calculus, linear algebra, and more than a little programming, if you didn’t have that in your prior education).

In general, the fact that over the course of these two years calculus and linear algebra (at least) was not required by the curriculum for those who didn’t have it in their bachelor is a bit ridiculous.

Internships

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Grape-laden vines in Povo near the CS campus and FBK.

You need a 15 credit internship during your studies at UniTN. While courses are very lacking at CIMeC, there is an ok sized group of comp ling researchers at the associated CLIC lab, who seem to work a lot with semantics, so an internship with them might work well.

For me, I lucked into a paid position at FBK, the local research institute. This institute is huge, and includes computational linguistics groups working on machine translation, natural language processing, and speech recognition, as well as all manner of other topics like physics, chemistry, social sciences, and so on. The environment is pretty nice, with many young people from different fields working on their PhDs, masters, and bachelors theses or internships, and visiting researchers coming in to give talks every now and then. Overall, I can recommend FBK.

However, you probably won’t get paid at these places. Therefore, I would say, first try to apply to positions in other companies around Italy or abroad, since you deserve to be paid what you are worth.

Final Thoughts (TL;DR)

  • Each person’s experience in this program is unique, so take all of this with a grain of salt.
  • Bureaucracy is painful. It takes 5 months for you to get your stay permit, during which time you cannot go to the rest of the Shengen Zone.
  • Food is great (except for white bread). If you like pasta and pizza, even better. Give the coffee and gelato a chance, even if you didn’t like it in the past, because it’s really artisanal here, and at least worth a try.
  • The climate is fairly temperate. Winter gets a bit cold and summer gets a bit hot, but it’s not awful.
  • There are many outdoor activities. Hiking and other mountain sports are breathtaking.
  • You will be teaching yourself everything.
  • Travel is annoying. Live in Trento and study at the CS campus in Povo if you are more into computational linguistics. Live in Rovereto for cognitive neuroscience.
  • Use the OpenMove app to buy tickets since it’s a bit cheaper, and get a Libera Circolazione pass once you have enrolled in the uni for extra cheap. The TrainTimetable app is good for seeing when your trains are late, by the way.
  • Don’t take train transfers of less than 20 minutes trains are late more often than not.
  • The university system is just you going to lectures for a couple months, and then studying like mad for a single final at the end.
  • Take the initiative when searching for internships. Find yourself something paid (will probably be abroad in that case). FBK in Povo is a good option (though most of their internships aren’t paid).
  • Before coming, try to take calculus, linear algebra, and python, plus statistics/probability if there’s time, and at least an introductory linguistics course
  • The scholarship is enough to cover a frugal cost of living in a shared flat, but costs are higher than in Saarland at least.

Overall, I enjoyed my second year for the experiences. I learned Italian to the point that I could get around (after having started from only knowing some French), I hiked some of the most beautiful hiking paths in the world, swam in some of the nicest lakes, and learned to do aerial silks. I didn’t learn much NLP though, because of the limited selection of courses, so I am quite far behind now, and will have to teach myself even more. Now that I am trying to apply to jobs, I know just how patchy my education has been. But for that, I should write another post.

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I’ll miss the view outside my window.

Costs for the year:

These costs are from the beginning of Sept. 2017 through the end of Oct. 2018 (so actually 13 months). I wrote monthly costs over the course of the year, but those were estimated and probably a bit off. These numbers should be more accurate for the entire period.

I spent €19587. It was good that I got a nice paid internship to supplement the scholarship, since the scholarship alone would have made this year a lot less fun. I spent a little less than last year, over a longer period of time, and I feel like the money went a further way… but that’s because a lot of the lowered costs can be attributed to living with my husband, and having him split half of it, since actually, the cost of living in Trentino is higher than in Saarland. This can easily be seen in the fact that I spent almost only around 30% of my income on rent/bills last year, as compared to 45% this year. Groceries, dining out, and clothes were definitely more expensive too, although it’s poorly reflected in the values below, since I just ate out less, bought few clothes, and my husband helped a lot with groceries.

  • 44.95% rent and bills (incl. internet and phone)
  • 21.98% travel
  • 9.79% groceries
  • 8.09% dining out
  • 3.29% medical expenses
  • 2.46% sports (mainly aerial silks)
  • 2.07% clothes
  • 2.00% public transportation
  • 1.22% education
  • 4.15% misc (gifts, entertainment, video games, etc.)

I met some of my financial goes from last year, and failed to meet others:

  1. Goal: not have more tech break (not entirely in my control obviously)
    • Failed. My work laptop broke 3 weeks before my thesis was due. I have yet to buy a new one.
  2. Goal: be smarter about ordering travel tickets ahead of time
    • Failed. If anything, I got more spontaneous and worse at this! Oops!
  3. Goal: go out less and/or cook wisely
    • Succeeded. Mostly thanks to my amazing husband.
  4. Goal: spend more time/money on sports
    • Succeeded. And spectacularly! Thanks to aerial silks.

My goals for the next year include:

  1. Find a good job and and a new place to live!
  2. Really have no more tech break on me… is this possible at all?
  3. Again, be smarter about travel. If I find a good job, I probably won’t have as much opportunity to be spontaneous so I will really have to plan ahead I think.
  4. Increase time spent on sports (and therefore money), because it’s fun.

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Getting actually lost amongst the vines somewhere near Rovereto.

Graduation

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Castel Beseno in Trentino, one of the places I am going to miss.

As a student of two universities, plus the LCT program, I get to graduate three times if I so choose– once at each of the universities, and once at the LCT meeting (which I have to pay to to go myself once I become an alumnus of the two unis).

In practical terms, this means that you end up going through the majority of the formalities at your second university, and then at some point, some more documents come in from your other universities. Since my second uni was University of Trento, I got to go through the Italian graduation process first. Surprisingly, everything went very smoothly, and graduation day was actually pretty fun!

When we graduate from high school or from a bachelors in the US, we have a massive assembly, with the entire graduating class (hundreds of students). You wear your robes/hat, and you wait forever until your name is called, so that you can walk up there, accept your diploma, and shake hands with some important leaders of the university. I didn’t go to my bachelors graduation, because I didn’t want to wait in the southern California desert sun for 8 hours, while everyone’s name was called, and because the ceremony took place some months after I had actually finished my schoolwork (I finished in December and ceremonies are in June/July), so I was already living somewhere else.

In Italy, the ceremony is completely different. First of all, it takes places with only your department, so the graduating class will just be the students that you know. Second of all, for the masters, it actually takes place on the same day that you defend. This means everyone makes their defense presentations, then the commission goes to deliberate on everyone’s grades, and then you get called back into the room again to receive diplomas. They call out your name, your grade, and you walk up to shake hands with your professors. In this way, it’s much more personal, which I really appreciated.

For my defense, I was defending a thesis on speech recognition to a department more focused on cognitive neuroscience. That is, my commission and fellow students were not experts on speech recognition. I had to tailor my defense to be a little more general, to be able to keep non-specialists interested in the topic, and the defense was only supposed to be 15 minutes long. This was actually really hard to do, and I had to cut out a lot. I think a longer defense to experts in the field would have been easier to present. On the other hand, I think since they were not experts, they judged me a little easier than an expert might have. I received full marks and highest honours. It felt really nice to get such amazing recognition for my work, but I know there were some mistakes in my thesis, and I’m sure that the commission at Saarland will be stricter.

Our defenses were split into a morning session and an afternoon session. After our session was done, the commission spent a good chunk of time (30-45 minutes) deliberating on our grades. Then we all got called back in with our families, for handing out the diplomas. When the student’s name is called, the professor says his normal spiel in Italian, and calls out the student’s grade, right there in front of everybody. It was something like, “with the power vested in me by the university, etc. etc., I award [the student] the master of cognitive science, with a grade of [the grade].”

This makes me wonder what happens if the student is going to fail the defense. But I get the feeling that this doesn’t happen. That is, once you are invited to the defense, it is almost certain that you will pass. At our department in Trento, they didn’t suggest for corrections to be made either, and I don’t know if this is typical or not.

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Handmade wreath of laurels.

Once this is done, the fun starts! We all got together in the garden in back, with champagne, sweets, confetti launchers, and actual “confetti” candies. These are little round candies given out in Italy for special events, and they are colour coded. For example, red ones are for graduation, white ones are for weddings. Each of the graduates was handed a wreath of laurels to wear on their head. (I think the colour of the ribbons in the leaves is supposed to be significant, but ours were just different colours for fun.) The ones we got were actual laurel leaves, created by our friends in the department, which was so nice and thoughtful of them! Our friends also put up compromising pictures of us throughout the halls, which was quite funny to see.

Then, the other students, the parents, and even the professors, sing a graduation song for you. This song is actually obscene, which is so funny… even funnier when it comes from professors! I don’t want to write the Italian version, because I think writing down Italian curse words might be frowned upon, so I will let you google the “dottore dottore” song.

Once the party begins, it doesn’t end. At least not in our department. Our students organized a massive alcohol-fest that night. I’m not a big drinker, so I only stayed a short while, but I expect it was going on until the wee hours. There, I saw another Italian tradition– a typical graduation drinking game. In this game, friends of the graduate write a big scroll about the graduate’s life with lots of rhymes and tongue twisters, and then the graduate has to read it correctly. Every time they mess up, they take a drink. People continued to sing the “dottore dottore” song throughout the night, as well.

I think the whole point of all of these festivities is to counteract the seriousness of the event. You just went through this grueling effort, and you are graduating as an official master’s degree holder… congratulations to you, but don’t let it go to your head, you’re are just the same as all the rest of us!

So that’s Italian graduation for you. I don’t know how German graduation goes, since I am (predictably) still waiting for my grades from Saarland. It turns out that the main person in charge of this aspect of bureaucracy is on sick leave right now, and since there’s no redundancy in the bureaucratic system there, we are probably going to have to wait until he gets better before getting our grades transferred and our diplomas in the mail. At some point next year, I hope to also be able to attend my final LCT meeting to see all the students from the previous year, and to graduate once again, from LCT (if they do a graduation for us, which I don’t know if they will).

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Castel Beseno in Trentino.

 

Rotwand

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Rotwand, from the bottom of the hiking path.

After a year here, I finally had the chance to visit the actual dolomites and to do a via ferrata. Last weekend, during what seemed to be perhaps the last warm weekend of the season, we headed up to the Rosengarten range, to Rotwand (Roda di Vaèl), the peak of which lies at around 2790 meters.

A via ferrata (literally “iron path”) is a hiking path with additional metal rebar and metal cables running up it. You can use climbing gear to hook into the cables, and pull yourself along. It’s not as hard as mountain climbing, because you have the cable and often also rebar ladders cut into the cliff face, but it’s harder than normal hiking, where you’d just be walking. Actually, I wouldn’t say the climbing harness makes the via ferrata feel particularly safe. The thing is, you hook yourself to the cable, but the path beneath you is often steep and slanted over the rocks. If you were to fall, you will slip quite a ways along the cable. You wouldn’t die (especially with the helmet on), but you could injure yourself pretty badly anyways, and I certainly wouldn’t want to be climbing back down a mountain bruised and bloody. In any case, the Rotwand one wasn’t a particularly difficult one, so that was alright.

We started the trip from Rovereto around 8am. The drive to Bolzano, where we would rent the gear, was around an hour, and then it took another half an hour to get to our parking spot in the mountains. By the way, we rented the gear from Base Camp Dolomiti, which is actually located inside the train station in Bolzano, like basically off of platform 1. The place was open on Sunday, and the people there were very nice and understanding when we were unable to return the gear the same night, so although they were small and their gear selection was tiny, I can’t complain about the service.

Anyways, after picking up our gear, we headed up to Rifugio Paolina, in the Dolomites. From there, we rode a ski lift up to Rotwand, and hiked in a circle around the rock formation, until reaching the beginning of the via ferrata. The ride up the ski lift was only around 15 minutes, but it covered a wide stretch of ground, a little under 2km in length.

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View of the valley below, from near the start of the via ferrata.

The day started out chilly, and there was a mist in the air. I was afraid I’d freeze in only my Patagonia sweater, but thankfully, it warmed up quite a bit in the afternoon. The mist never quite dissipated, though, instead floating back and forth over the peak as we ascended, giving the excursion an ethereal feel. The hike around the peak was not too bad. It took just around 1.5 hours, and it was only moderately steep.

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This peak was behind us the whole time we climbed.

I was very excited to finally do a via ferrata. I’d heard of them all year, but had never gotten around to renting the gear and finding a way to go. It was fortunate that a big group decided to go this time around, so I was able to tag along. The Rotwand via ferrata wasn’t much more difficult than the hike up to it. There were many times that I felt the ferrata gear was hardly needed, and was just slowing me down– but then again, there were also times that I was happy to have the peace of mind. This via ferrata didn’t have a lot of exposed areas, which is one thing that I had hoped for, but once again, maybe it was all the better to cut my teeth on a simpler climb. In any case, the view from the top was absolutely spectacular.

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On the way back, we caught the setting sun, as we made our way down the mountain. It’s warm rays cast the mountain behind us in a ruddy bronze, which is where the name Rotwand (literally “red wall”) must come from, I suppose. Unfortunately, we were too late to catch the ski lift, meaning we had to walk an extra hour all the way down the ski slope. By the end, my knees were hurting, and my thighs burned the next two days, whenever I tried to walk down the stairs. Such is the hiking life I guess? I’m definitely going to miss these exquisitely breathtaking hikes when my stay in Italy is over (the end is very soon now), and I wish I had started on the via ferrate much sooner in the year!

Weeks 98 through 111

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I submitted the thesis.

The work’s not done. I still have the defense and probably some annoying bureaucracy, and I hope I haven’t failed to account for anything, since other people have had some trouble graduating due to last minute realizations made by the university administration(s)… but one big milestone is completed.

Anyways, it’s been a lot of weeks since I did a post about what’s going on in general, though I’ve made a few smaller posts since then. The last two months have just been incredibly busy. Any time that I haven’t spent working on my thesis, I have spent traveling or exercising. Well, I exaggerate. There have been evenings of mindless video games, to blank out a little bit after all the hard work.

Over the last few months, the seasons have changed again, as is typical on a planet whirling rapidly around a shining star in the void of space. Amongst the activities over the last few months, I met the new Trento LCT students, which was nice, though I haven’t had much opportunity to hang out with them so far. I also went to the doctors, and got a travel pass, both of which were a bit of a hassle.

On a lighter note, we had visitors non-stop for a while, which was a blast, as usual. We traveled with them, to hikes and lakes nearby, as well as farther out to Liguria. In sum, we visited Torino, Cinque Terre (twice), Lago di Garda (again) including Limone sul Garda, Lago di Caldonazzo, Lago di Lamar, Tre Cime del Bondone, and Monte Altissimo di Nago.

Lago di Caldonazzo was super easy to reach. We took a train from Trento in the direction of Bassano del Grappa (the same one that goes past San Bartolomeo, where the student housing is). That train brings you straight to the lake. It’s a lovely area, with a small resort town and plenty of nice swimming beaches. The day we went, a train of little old cars paraded through the center of the town, so that was nice to see, but otherwise, there’s not much to say. The lake was very pretty, and we had a relaxing time.

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Lago di Lamar was also not particularly difficult to reach. You take a bus from Trento to Terlaghi, and it also takes you right there, practically to the shores of the lake. This lake is much much smaller (you can swim across the whole of it), but it is so lovely. The water is clear and blue, and filled with fish that dart around you as you enter. On the opposite side, where you have to swim to, there is a cliff of around 10m in height that people jump off of. This is a bit too high for me to dare jumping off of; however, even better, there are three ropes around the edges of the lake that you can swim and jump from. This is basically the best thing ever.

The rope on the right bank of the river is pretty low, so I think it’s better for children, since the water beneath it looks a bit shallow. The two ropes on the left bank are better for adults. I’ve jumped off both the first one and the second one. The second one is maybe 2m in height, and the first one is maybe 3-4m in height. When I jumped off the first one, I sort of ended up twisting in the air, and basically landed right on my thigh. I ended up with the biggest bruise I’ve ever had, all the way down my entire leg. It was kind of nuts… but it was worth it.

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Finally, there are a number of beautiful hikes around the lake. The one that we chose to go on, though, was basically straight up. It was too intense for me, especially considering the heat of 30 degrees C. At some point, I turned back around, and went back to jump into the lake some more. The cool water felt so incredibly good after such a sweaty and tiresome hike.

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The other two hikes we did were exhilarating, as usual. The first went up the Tre Cime del Bondone (Three Peaks of Bondone). This was definitely an all day hike. I think it took us around 6 hours, although we did take some long breaks on my account. The hike up to the first peak is steep, and the view from the top is pretty nice, though not as nice as some of the other views we’ve seen (but now I am really splitting hairs). Then you hike down a bit, and head over to the second peak.

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On the second peak, there are some very light Via Ferrata sort of areas. These are basically rebar ladders stabbed into the rock, with cables alongside. In a typical Via Ferrata, you are meant to use a harness with two supporting ropes to hook onto the cables, and you can climb along the rock or cliff face this way. It’s sort of like mountain climbing lite. In the area we went to though, it wasn’t really Via Ferrata. That is, you didn’t really need any gear, and the rebar/cable was more as a nice handhold to get up to the next little rock. One day, I hope I will have a chance to do a real Via Ferrata, but unfortunately, the summer has gone by, and so I missed my chance this year.

After climbing through the second peak, you go up to the third peak. The view from here is really nice, with the mountain tops and valleys behind you. After this, you can wind your way down the mountain without too much difficulty, to return from where you started.

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Finally, the hike up Monte Altissimo di Nago was just lovely. I liked it because it was actually quite a bit shorter than the other hikes we have done, but the views were at least as stunning. The hike started steep, but then leveled out to a wide mountain biking road that wound up and around the entire mountain. It was longer this way, but quite easy to go up. From the top, we could see the a very large part of Lago di Garda. I had never seen so much of it in one glance before, and it really impresses upon you the immense size of this lake.

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The hiking path up this side is populated by cow farms, so we saw many cows on the way up. On the way down, the cows took a special liking to us. One of them came to say hello. She licked at our legs and arms (I guess we were salty from the sweaty hike). She was a total cutie! I can’t decide which picture of her I like better. What do you think?

Costs:

I spent a lot of money these ~3 months (around 600 euro over my budget), since I took some extravagant trips, and went out a lot with friends (both during those trips and outside of that). I’m able to be frivolous like this because I have a paid internship.

  • 705 – rent
  • 1252 – trips
  • 389 – food
  • 231 – groceries
  • 377 – dining
  • 125 – sports
  • 156 – clothes
  • 151 – phone
  • 115 – internet
  • €35 – medical expenses
  • €69 – utilities
  • 46 – entertainment (games/drinks)
  • €156 – misc
  • Total: 3576

Officialization 14: Getting a travel pass

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Limone sul Garda

Officialization TOC

  1. Officialization 1: WTF comes next in Italy?
  2. Officialization 2: Apartment
  3. Officialization 3: Internet
  4. Officialization 4: Stay Permit, part I
  5. Officialization 5: Picking Courses
  6. Officialization 6: Stay Permit, part II
  7. Officialization 7: TV Tax
  8. Officialization 8: Stay Permit, part III
  9. Officialization 9: Residenzia
  10. Officialization 10: Health Insurance
  11. Officialization 11: Thesis Registration
  12. Officialization 12: Stay Permit, part IV
  13. Officialization 13: Going to the doctors
  14. Officialization 14: Getting a travel pass  <– You are here

Getting a travel pass

As a student, at the start of last year, I was able to get a Libera Circolazione (free movement) pass for the entirety of Trentino for just 50 Euros. Now, since I have already submitted my intention to graduate, I am no longer eligible for this awesome deal. So instead, I had to get an “abbonamento” (monthly pass) from the normal railway and bus system, Trentino Trasporti. Weirdly, I could still get the student version of this pass, and they used a grainy image of my student id mug shot for the card.

Anyways, the process for getting this was a minor hassle. First, I went to the train station, and asked them what to do. They gave me a form to fill out and said to come back in a week for the card. Like most offices here, they can’t call my US-based number, and don’t send emails, so I had to come in physically (I do recommend getting an Italian number at some point, although I never did).

I came back in a week, and they told me that they needed another form from me. The second one seemed to be a student related form. The funny thing is it had literally the exact same info on it as the first form. I had to fill everything in exactly the same. But for whatever reason, it was a separate form. I filled it out, and they told me to come back in a week.

I came back to pick up my card, which cost 4 euros. I asked to pay for the monthly pass. They said that they didn’t do that, and I had to go to Trentino Trasporti. The guy tried to explain to me where that was in Rovereto, but when I looked at Google maps, I didn’t see it there. I never went there in the end. Instead, I went to the one in Trento. In fact, this is actually the same office as the Autostazione (bus station), and in Trento, it’s located right next to the train station. I pass by there often, so it made sense to stop by at some point.

I bought the monthly train pass to travel between Rovereto and Trento, and a monthly bus pass to get to Povo, where FBK is located. This cost me 54 Euro– for one month– more expensive than the entire school year with Libera Circolazione.

In the meantime, I had to buy a bunch of train and bus tickets, so I spent a ton of money. Actually, I sort of messed that up, because I didn’t realize at first that using the OpenMove app, you can buy a combined train+bus ticket from Rovereto to Povo, and it’s cheaper than buying a separate Rovereto->Trento train ticket and Trento->Povo bus ticket. So yea, the cost of work travel this month has far far exceeded the cost of work travel for the entire year prior.

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